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You are at the section Calendar History

Swedish Calendar 1700-1712

In 1699, effective 1700, Sweden and its colonies decided to make a gradual switchover from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, rather than to adopt the Gregorian calendar immediately, by slowly speeding up the pacing of the calendar for 40 years.

Their method? To skip the next 11 leap year days on years divisible by four (no leap year days through 1740). On Feb 29, 1700, Julian-1 calendar it was Mar 1, 1700 Julian-Sweden-1 calendar. On that day, it was one day ahead of the Julian-1 calendar, and 10, instead of 11, days behind the Gregorian calendar. To further confuse matters, also in use is the Julian-3-25- calendar, which matches the Julian-1's dates, but its yearly Number Change Day wasn't on January 1st, but on March 25th.

The plan for Sweden was to shorten the day gap between the calendar they were using and the Gregorian calendar they wanted to use in 1741. by coming one day closer every fourth March 1st in years divisible by four until the use of a leap year resumes with the calendar of 1741.

This change further added confusion between countries on what day it was for commerce and trade. As you can see from the chart below between the four calendars in use by various European countries, it was calendar anarchy in the U.K., Europe, the Meditteranean and elsewhere!

GregorianJulian-1Julian-3-25-Julian-Sweden-1
Mar 12, 1712Mar 01, 1712Mar 01, 1711Mar 01, 1712
Mar 11, 1712Feb 29, 1712Feb 29, 1711Feb 30, 1712
Mar 10, 1712Feb 28, 1712Feb 28, 1711Feb 29, 1712
Mar 09, 1712Feb 27, 1712Feb 27, 1711Feb 28, 1712
Mar 12, 1708Mar 01, 1708Mar 01, 1707Mar 02, 1708
Mar 11, 1708Feb 29, 1708Feb 29, 1707Mar 01, 1708
Mar 10, 1708Feb 28, 1708Feb 28, 1707Feb 29, 1708
Mar 09, 1708Feb 27, 1708Feb 27, 1707Feb 28, 1708
Mar 12, 1704Mar 01, 1704Mar 01, 1703Mar 02, 1704
Mar 11, 1704Feb 29, 1704Feb 29, 1703Mar 01, 1704
Mar 10, 1704Feb 28, 1704Feb 28, 1703Feb 29, 1704
Mar 09, 1704Feb 27, 1704Feb 27, 1703Feb 28, 1704
Apr 07, 1700Mar 27, 1700Mar 27, 1700Mar 28, 1700
Apr 06, 1700Mar 26, 1700Mar 26, 1700Mar 27, 1700
Apr 05, 1700Mar 25, 1700Mar 25, 1700Mar 26, 1700
Apr 04, 1700Mar 24, 1700Mar 24, 1699Mar 25, 1700
Mar 12, 1700Mar 01, 1700Mar 01, 1699Mar 02, 1700
Mar 11, 1700Feb 29, 1700Feb 29, 1699Mar 01, 1700
Feb 29, 1700 skipped
Mar 10, 1700Feb 28, 1700Feb 28, 1699Feb 28, 1700
Mar 01, 1700Feb 19, 1700Feb 19, 1699Feb 19, 1700
Feb 29, 1700 skipped
Feb 28, 1700Feb 18, 1700Feb 18, 1699Feb 18, 1700

Who knew which countries were using what calendars? Total confusion. You have the Julian-Sweden calendar being used in only one country. It was clearly obvious it wasn't going to work.

Furthermore, the Great Northern War made the people in charge of the Julian-Sweden calendar forget to skip omitting the Feb 29, 1704 and Feb 29, 1708 leap year days, making the calendar stuck one day ahead of the Julian-1 calendar.

In January 1711, King Charles XII issued a command that Sweden would retreat from using the altered calendar, and return to using the Julian-1 calendar on March 1, 1712. To achieve lining up the dates with the two calendars, a second extra day was added to February of 1712, the day after the 29th modestly called February 30, 1712. This made the calendar 367 days long just for that year. As you can see at the top of the above chart, this is how the dates lined up after February 30, 1712, Julian-Sweden calendar date.

In the year 1753, a year after England and its colonies, Sweden adopted the Gregorian calendar. February 17 being followed by March 1, the transition was complete.

The Julian-Sweden Calendar (used in Sweden 1700-1712)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: no leap year day on Feb 29, 1700, extra leap year day on Feb 30, 1712, regular Feb 29 leap year days since 1704
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero
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Calendar History Main Page Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I Calendar 2: The Republican Calendar I Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar Calendar 5: The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar Calendar 6: The Julian-Roman-Transitional-1 Calendar Calendar 7: The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar Calendar 8: The Julian-Kalends-1 Calendar Calendar 9: The Julian-1 Calendar Calendar 10: The Gregorian Calendar Dual Dating Date Confusion Definition of Days on the Calendars Definition of Calendars: Others Old, New and Unknown Styles Leap Year Error on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar What Calendars Each Country Was Using Gregorian-Julian Differences By Century New Years Days Addenda Day and Year Measurements Calendar Varieties-Gregorian Calendar Varieties-Julian Calendar Varieties-Other Years Converted From Julian Period Day Lining Up Julian Dates Between Earth and Mars The Martian Calendar of Earth Converting From the Julian Period Date Creating a Julian Period Day Database File Truncating Answers Conversion Between Julian-1 and Gregorian Calendars Create a Calendar Leap Year Day Comparisons Swedish Calendar 1700-1712
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