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You are at the section Calendar History

Calendar Varieties-Julian

Calendars Based on the Julian Calendar Format-Jesus Christ Era

The Julian-1 and Julian-Kalends-1 Calendars

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. Julian-1 (aka Julian-Christ-1), days counting up from 1 to the number representing end of the month, and the year of reckoning is 1 B.C., the year Jesus Christ was conceived by Mary. This is the standard since the middle ages. Leap Year Day inserted between Feb 23 and 24.
    2. Julian-Kalends-1 (aka Julian-Christ-Kalends-1), days counting down to Nones, Ides and Kalends, and the year of reckoning is 1 B.C., the year Christ was conceived by Mary. This was conceived in the middle of the first millenium as it replaced the reckoning year of Rome. Leap Year Day inserted after VII Kal Mar.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-1 and Julian-Countup-1 Calendars

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. Julian-Roman-1 (aka Julian-Roman-Kalends-1), days counting down to Nones, Ides and Kalends, and the year of reckoning is 753 B.C., the year Rome was founded. This was the original day counting direction/naming and year of reckoning that was intended to replace the Republican Calendar in 45 B.C.E. Leap Year Day inserted after VII Kal Mar.
    2. Julian-Countup-1 (aka Julian-Roman-Countup-1), days counting up from 1 to the number representing end of the month, and the year of reckoning is 753 B.C., the year Rome was founded. I don't believe this calendar was ever used, but it's here for comparision with the other three calendar reckoning/day counting variations. Leap Year Day inserted between Feb 23 and 24.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-3-1-(minus) Calendar (number change behind Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: March 1
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-3-25-(minus) Calendar (number change behind Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: March 25
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-3-1+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: March 1
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero
  7. It is not known which countries ever used this calendar

The Julian-3-25+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: March 25
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero
  7. It is not known which countries ever used this calendar

The Julian-Easter+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: Easter Sunday, year changes ahead of the Julian-1 Calendar
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-9-1+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: September 1
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-12-25+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: December 25, year changes ahead of the Julian-1 Calendar
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Sweden Calendar (used in Sweden 1700-1712)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: no leap year day on Feb 29, 1700, extra leap year day on Feb 30, 1712, regular Feb 29 leap year days since 1704
  3. era: Christian (1 A.D.) though scholars state Jesus Christ was born between 4 B.C. and 6 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

Calendars Based on the Julian Calendar Format-Other Eras

The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: January 1.
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-3-1-(minus) Calendar (number change behind Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: March 1.
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-3-25-(minus) Calendar (number change behind Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: March 25.
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-9-1+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: September 1.
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-12-25+(plus) Calendar (number change ahead of Julian-1)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: December 25 and the year number changed to the one the Julian-1 calendar would be using the following Jan 1.
  5. Days of the month formats:
    1. counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
    2. split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar (used from 45 B.C. to 4 A.D.)

  1. Calendar format: Julian Month Format of 45 B.C. used to 9 B.C., then Julian-Roman-1 format from 8 B.C. and later
  2. Intercalary format: leap years were placed at various years according to several scholars, none of which agree on any pattern of years with a leap year day added. Many scholars say that the years 5 B.C, 1 B.C. and 4 A.D. did not have leap year days in order for the calendar to catch up with the intended Julian-Roman-1 date.
  3. era: Year of the Founding City of Rome (753 B.C.)
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: split into three zones (Nones, Ides and Kalends) in a countdown format.
  6. No Year Zero. Not adaptable to be proleptic.

The Julian-JulianPeriod Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: day zero beginning at noon on January 1, 4713 B.C. (for this modified calendar, the new day starts at 12:00 A.M.)
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Hebrew Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the reckoning year of 3761 B.C. where they reckon that the world was created according to the Hebrew calendar. The epochic date, 1 Tishrei year 1, is equivalent to Monday, October 7, 3761 B.C.E. in the proleptic Julian-1 calendar or September 7, 3761 B.C.E. in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Rumi Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the reckoning year of 622 A.D. (July 15), when Mohammed and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina
  4. Number Change Day: January 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Rumi-MarchEquinox Calendar (also called Solar Hijri Old Style)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the reckoning year of 622 A.D. (July 15), when Mohammed and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina
  4. Number Change Day: usually March 21 but may be March 20 depending on year.
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Byzantine Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the World Era beginning on September 1, 5509 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: January 1, with the years from this calendar lining up with the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 (or Byzantine) calendar from September 1 through December 31 (number change eight months ahead)
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero

The Julian-Byzantine3-1-(minus) Calendar

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the World Era beginning on September 1, 5509 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: March 1, with the years from this calendar lining up with the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 (or Byzantine) calendar from March 1 through August 31 (number change six months behind)
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero
  7. The year of the Julian-Byzantine3-1 calendar is one year ahead of the Julian-Byzantine3-1-minus calendar.

The Julian-Byzantine-9-1+(plus) Calendar (also called the Byzantine Calendar for short)

  1. Calendar format: Julian
  2. Intercalary format: leap day every four years from 8 A.D. and forwards, 4 A.D. (proleptic), and every four years from 1 B.C. and backwards (proleptic)
  3. era: based on the World Era beginning on September 1, 5509 B.C.
  4. Number Change Day: September 1
  5. Days of the month format: counting up from 1 until the end of the month is reached.
  6. No Year Zero
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Calendar History Main Page Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I Calendar 2: The Republican Calendar I Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar Calendar 5: The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar Calendar 6: The Julian-Roman-Transitional-1 Calendar Calendar 7: The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar Calendar 8: The Julian-Kalends-1 Calendar Calendar 9: The Julian-1 Calendar Calendar 10: The Gregorian Calendar Dual Dating Date Confusion Definition of Days on the Calendars Definition of Calendars: Others Old, New and Unknown Styles Leap Year Error on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar What Calendars Each Country Was Using Gregorian-Julian Differences By Century New Years Days Addenda Day and Year Measurements Calendar Varieties-Gregorian Calendar Varieties-Julian Calendar Varieties-Other Years Converted From Julian Period Day Lining Up Julian Dates Between Earth and Mars The Martian Calendar of Earth Converting From the Julian Period Date Creating a Julian Period Day Database File Truncating Answers Conversion Between Julian-1 and Gregorian Calendars Create a Calendar Leap Year Day Comparisons Swedish Calendar 1700-1712
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