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New Years Days
During the Republican Calendar Years.
- The calendar began the year in Martius (March), some sources say that the new year started on March 15 but some suggest March 1 from the beginning of the calendar's days.
- Some sources said that the Romans ended the year on Februarius 23, others say March 31, May 1 or July 1. We don't know for sure when the new year really started.
- In 153 B.C., the New Year was moved from to the Kalendae (or Kalends) of Ianvarivs (January 1). The month order remained the same.
- Some argue that for government purposes, March 15 is the start of the new year (fiscally). Years were named after the consuls, who were elected annually during the Republican Calendar days. The name of the year identified a consular term of office, not a calendar year. March 15 was the day the consulship took office or began a new year with each of their years ending on March 14.
- New Year Day guesses: May 1 before 222 B.C., March 15 frpm 222-154 B.C., January 1 from 153 - 46 B.C. and still January 1 on 45 B.C.
- other mentions of earlier consular years state that it may have begun on 1 Sextilis (August), 15 Maius, 15 December, 1 October and 1 Quintilis (July).
Julian Calendars and forward.
- in 45 B.C., the first day of the year was January 1, carried over from the previous Republican Calendar used. The original Julian calendar designation for New Year's Day on January 1 was designated as Julian-1 as it will be used whenever a date used in a country or time when New Year's Day fell on a day other than January 1 for time continuium purposes.)
- there was no year zero on the Julian calendar, so year 1 B.C. became 1 A.D. after the last day in December.
- Around 150 A.D., Christian churches decided to counter the pagan festivals by celebrating December 25 as the birhtday of Jesus Christ. When Virgin Mary became a popular figure, the Christians decided that the day of the Feast of the Annunciation, also known as the Immaculate Conception of Mary, or March 25, should be the start of the new year, and end on March 24.
- When the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century, New Year's Day was gradually realigned with some countries celebrating it on Christmas Day (Julian-12-25+ or Julian-Christmas+), or March 1 Julian-3-1- or March 25 Julian-3-25-, Annunciation or Lady Day calendar) in some others, and some on Easter Day (Julian-Easter+).
- By the 9th century, some European countries moved the New Year to March 25. Late in the 12th century, England and Scotland moved the New Year to March 25.
- From 1155 - 1751, it fell on March 25, with March 24 as the preceding year (1154 or 1155 - 1750)
- Did the year 1154 have TWO sets of dates from January 1 - March 24, 1154? How were the differences recognized?
- Were such ranges double-dated in years such as 1153/4 and 1154/5?
- Conversions when going from the Julian-1 to Julian-3-25- calendars.
- Jan 1 - Mar 24, 1154 Julian-1 would be Jan 1 - Mar 24, 1153 Julian-3-25-
- Mar 25 - Dec 31, 1154 Julian-1 would be Mar 25 - Dec 31, 1154 Julian-3-25-
- When that country adopted Mar 25 as the new year before 1154 Julian-1 was over.
- Jan 1 - Mar 24, 1155 Julian-1 would be Jan 1 - Mar 24, 1154 Julian-3-25-
- Mar 25 - Dec 31, 1155 Julian-1 would be Mar 25 - Dec 31, 1155 Julian-3-25-
- Calendar Year Ranges
- Jan 1 year X to Dec 31 year X
- Mar 1 year X to Feb 28/29 year X+1 (increments later than the year on the Julian-1 calendar)
- Mar 25 year x to Mar 24 year X+1
- Easter Sunday year x-1 to Holy Saturday year x (increments earlier than the year on the Julian-1 calendar)
- Christmas Day year x-1 to Christmas Eve year x
- Mar 15 year x to Mar 14 year X+1
- Holy Saturday year x-1 to Good Friday year x
- Local Calendars Differing with Number Change Day
- In the initial Julian calendar, Number-Change Day was on January 1, but when local calendars were aligned to the Julian calendar, each kept its own Number-Change Day.
- Alexandrian calendar (Egypt): August 29/30
- Several local provincial calendars: September 23 (Augustus's birth)
- Byzantine year: September 1
- Eastern Orthodox Church liturgical year: September 1
- Western Europe during middle ages: December 25 or March 25
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