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You are at the section Calendar History

What Calendars Each Country Was Using

  1. Asks asks these questions
    1. What calendars were they using?
    2. When did they adopt calendars?
    3. When did they change New Years Days or Number Change Days?
    4. How did they convert from one calendar to another?

The Countries involved in the changes of uses of the calendars and new year days.

Roman Catholic countries:

  1. On Oct 15, 1582, the Roman Catholic countries replaced the Julian with the Gregorian calendar.
  2. October 4, 1582 was followed immediately by October 15, 1582, an adjustment that compensated for the slight overage in Leap Days in Julius Caesar's calendar.
  3. Poland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Catholic Low Countries, Luxemburg, and theur colonies also switched to the Gregorian calendar on Oct 15, 1582.
  4. Calendar used: October 1582 Julian/Gregorian: Mon 1-Thu 4, then Fri 15-Sun 31
  5. Some sources say that Luxemburg changed calendars later: 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Alaska (territory, now a U.S.A. state)

  1. when Alaska was part of the Russian empire, it used Russia's calendar system (see Russia history); the International Date line passed through the eastern side of Alaska.
  2. In 1700, January 1 became the start of the year. The Byzantine years were replaced with the Julian years as it adpopted the Julian-1 calendar with January 1 being the New Years Day.
  3. In 1867, when Russia was using the Julian-1 calendar, it sold the territory of Alaska to the U.S.A., which was using the Gregorian calendar.
  4. Alaska switched to the calendar the U.S.A. was using by not only dropping 11 days but also repeating a day of the week; the International Date line was moved to past the west coast of Alaska where it sits between it and Russia.
  5. Calendar used: October 1867 Julian/Gregorian: Sun 1-Fri 6, then Fri 18-Thu 31 (loses 11 days and repeats one weekday.)
  6. Soviet Russia, the former owner of Alaska, undertook its calendar reform in February 1918, they moved from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian. This move resulted in a loss of 13 days, so that 31 Jan 1918 was followed by 14 Feb 1918 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Albania

  1. in December 1912, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Alsace

  1. In 1648, it began using the Gregorian calendar. 5 Feb 1682 was followed by 16 Feb 1682 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Austria

  1. In 1583, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. Different regions changed on different dates.
  3. Brixen, Salzburg and Tyrol: 5 Oct 1583 was followed by 16 Oct 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  4. Carinthia and Styria: 14 Dec 1583 was followed by 25 Dec 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Australia

  1. From the arrival in 1788 of the flrst fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, Australia used the Gregorian calendar that Britian used since 1752.

Belgium (then part of the Netherlands in 1582)

  1. By the end of 1582, part of it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. By the end of 1583, the rest of it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  3. Different authorities say:
    1. 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
    2. 21 Dec 1582 was followed by 1 Jan 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Kingdom of Bohemia

  1. in 1584, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Bulgaria

  1. in 1916, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. Different authorities say
    1. Sometime in 1912
    2. Sometime in 1915
    3. 18 Mar 1916 was followed by 1 Apr 1916 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
    4. 31 Mar 1916 was followed by 14 Apr 1916 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Canada

  1. In 1752, all of Cananda was using the Gregorian calendar, but parts of it were using the Gregorian calendar before then.
  2. In Newfoundland and Hudson Bay coast:
    1. 2 Sep 1752 was followed by 14 Sep 1752 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  3. Mainland Nova Scotia:
    1. It switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1605. It used the Gregorian date until 13 Oct 1710.
    2. It then switched back to the Julian calendar in 1710. It used it from 2 Oct 1710 - 2 Sep 1752. It repeated 11 days.
    3. It switched back to the Gregorian calendar in 1752. 2 Sep 1752 was followed by 14 Sep 1752 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  4. Rest of Canada:
    1. all of them used the Gregorian calendar from the first European settlements

China

  1. on January 1, 1912 (or 1929 depending on authority), it began using the Gregorian calendar after previously using a lunisolar calendar.
  2. This country never used a Julian calendar of any variation. This country still uses their lunisolar Chinese calendar when determining certain tradtional holidays.
  3. December 31, 1911 Gregorian (the 12th day of the 11th lunar month, 4609) was followed by January 1, 1912 (the 13th day of the 11th lunar month, 4609) as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  4. China, Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore and Taiwan all have legal holidays based on the lunisolar Chinese calendar, with the most important one being the Chinese New Year.
  5. Chinese Calendar Conversion website converts between it and the Gregorian calendar dates.

Czechoslovakia (i.e. Bohemia and Moravia)

  1. in 1584, it began using the Gregorian calendar. 6 Jan 1584 was followed by 17 Jan 1584 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Denmark (including Norway through the 1700s)

  1. in a gradual change from the 13th century to the year 1559, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. in 1700, it began using the Gregorian calendar. 18 Feb 1700 was followed by 1 Mar 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Egypt

  1. The Egyptian Calendar was reformed in 25 B.C. to be in sync with Julian-1 calendar
  2. in 1875, it began using the Gregorian calendar as the day after December 19, 1874 Julian was January 1, 1875 Gregorian

England

  1. during the England pagan times: December 25 was the New Year day according to another source, England used the Julian-12-25+ Calendar until the thirteenth century
  2. from 1087 to 1155, January 1 was the New Year day
  3. from 1155 to 1751, March 25 was the New Year day (for the Julian-1 1155 dates before March 25, the year was 1154 for the second time but add an I.D. at the end to differentiate such as Julian-Lady Day for the second Jan 1-Mar 24 range and the Julian-Modern for the first Jan 1-Mar 24 range for Julian-1 year 1154)
  4. The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 enacted the actions that follow this entry
  5. December 31, 1750 (Julian-3-25-) was followed by January 1, 1750 (Julian-3-25- still had New Year's Day on March 25)
  6. March 24, 1750 was followed by March 25, 1751 (the last time this date was used for that country as their New Year's Day)
  7. December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 (Julian-1 with January 1 as the start of the new year)
  8. 1751 was a short year with 282 days.
  9. September 2, 1752 (Julian-1) was followed by September 14, 1752 (Gregorian dropping of 11 days)
  10. The Gregorian calendar was introduced on throughout Ireland, England, Britain and the British colonies with September 3, 1752 (the day after Sep 2, 1752 Julian-1) changed to September 14, 1752 (Gregorian)
  11. Calendar used: September 1752 Julian/Gregorian: Tue 1-Wed 2, then Thu 14-Sat 30

Estonia

  1. in January 1918, it began using the Gregorian calendar. 31 Jan 1918 was followed by 14 Feb 1918 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Finland

  1. In 1753, it began using the Gregorian calendar. 17 Feb 1753 was followed by 1 Mar 1753 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  2. Finland was then part of Sweden in 1753. Finland later became part of Russia, which then still used the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar remained official in Finland, but some use of the Julian calendar was made.

France

  1. In 1564, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. the day following December 9, 1582 Julian was December 20, 1582 Gregorian as France made the switch to the Gregorian calendar.
  3. Calendar used: December 1582 Julian/Gregorian: Sat 1-Sun 9, then Mon 20-Fri 31
  4. The Mississippi territory (with owner France) changed to the Gregorian calendar in 1582.
  5. France invented and began using The French Republican Calendar in 1793
  6. Number Change Day was usually on September 22
  7. This calendar was abandoned after the year 1805.
  8. On January 1, 1806, France reverted to the Gregorian calendar.

Germany

  1. Germany used the Julian-12-25+ Calendar until the thirteenth century
  2. In 1544, Holy Roman Empire (of Germany) began using January 1 as the start of the year.
  3. In many Catholic states of Germany, the day following December 21, 1582 Julian was January 1, 1583 Gregorian (skipping over Christmas Day unless that day was celebrated before or after the change took place), but the rest of the Catholic states changed as late as 1585.
  4. Calendar used: December 1582 Julian-1: Sat 1-Fri 21. Then January 1583 Gregorian: Sat 1-Mon 31
  5. In the 1600s and 1700s, Protestant Germany switched piecemeal to the Gregorian calendar. Prussia phased in the Gregorian calendar in 1610.
  6. In 1700, in the Protestant states: 18 Feb 1700 was followed by 1 Mar 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar with many local variations of the calendar.

Great Britian

  1. The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 enacted the actions that follow this entry
  2. December 31, 1750 (Julian) was followed by January 1, 1750 (Julian still had New Year's Day on March 25)
  3. March 24, 1750 was followed by March 25, 1751 (the last time this date was used for that country as their New Year's Day)
  4. December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 (Julian-1 with January 1 as the start of the new year)
  5. 1751 was a short year with 282 days.
  6. September 2, 1752 (Julian-1) was followed by September 14, 1752 (Gregorian dropping of 11 days)
  7. The Gregorian calendar was introduced on throughout Ireland, England, Britain and the British colonies with September 3, 1752 (the day after Sep 2, 1752 Julian-1) changed to September 14, 1752 (Gregorian)
  8. Calendar used: September 1752 Julian/Gregorian: Tue 1-Wed 2, then Thu 14-Sat 30

Greece

  1. in 1923, it began using the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes and immediately, naturally, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. Different authorities say:
    1. The day after Feb 15, 1923 Julian was March 1, 1923 Gregorian.
    2. The day after Mar 9, 1924 Julian was followed by Mar 23, 1924 Gregorian.
    3. some other sources say 1916 and 1920.
  3. The national day (March 25), which was a religious holiday, was to remain on the old calendar.

Hungary

  1. in 1587, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. 21 Oct 1587 was followed by 1 Nov 1587 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Iceland

  1. in 1700, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Ireland

  1. The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 enacted the actions that follow this entry
  2. December 31, 1750 Julian was followed by January 1, 1750 Julian (the country's New Year's Day was still on March 25)
  3. March 24, 1750 was followed by March 25, 1751 (the last time this date was used for that country as their New Year's Day)
  4. December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 (Julian-1 with January 1 as the start of the new year)
  5. 1751 was a short year with 282 days.
  6. September 2, 1752 (Julian-1) was followed by September 14, 1752 (Gregorian dropping of 11 days)
  7. The Gregorian calendar was introduced on throughout Ireland, England, Britain and the British colonies with September 3, 1752 (the day after Sep 2, 1752 Julian-1) changed to September 14, 1752 (Gregorian)
  8. Calendar used: September 1752 Julian/Gregorian: Tue 1-Wed 2, then Thu 14-Sat 30

Italy

  1. Oct 4, 1582 was followed by Oct 15, 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  2. Calendar used: October 1582 Julian/Gregorian: Mon 1-Thu 4, then Fri 15-Sun 31

Japan

  1. In the middle of the sixth century, Korea introduced the lunisolar Chinese calendar to Japan.
  2. This country never used a Julian calendar of any variation.
  3. The Gregorian calendar was introduced to supplement the traditional lunisolar Japanese calendar, which is no longer used except in very limited unofficial purposes.
  4. on January 1, 1873, it began using the Gregorian calendar and immediately, naturally, January 1 became the start of the year.
  5. December 31, 1872 Gregorian (the second day (counting down to the first day of the following month method) of the twelfth month of year 5 of the Meiji era) was followed by January 1, 1873 (the first day of the first month of year 6 of the Meiji era) as it switched to the Gregorian calendar. (the Meiji era was from 23 October 1868 to 29 July 1912)
  6. Japan uses a Gregorian calendar with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor.

Korea 1945 and Before

  1. Korea used a lunisolar calendar of their own like the traditional calendars of some other East Asian countries. The dates used are calculated from Korea's merdian. Their calendar was derived from the Chinese calendar.
  2. At first, the Korean calendar designated its years via the Korean era names from 270 to 963.
  3. After that, the Chinese era names with Korean era names were used a few times until 1984.
  4. In 1894/1895, the calendar was used with years numbered from the foundation of the Joseon Dynasty in the year 1392.
  5. The Gregorian-Korea calendar: on January 1, 1896, it began using this reckoning year-altered Gregorian calendar after previously using their lunisolar calendar, which is now used in very limited unofficial purposes only; the reckoning year, however, was still based on the old Korean calendar. It added the Korea era name Geonyang.
  6. This country never used a Julian calendar of any variation.
  7. December 31, 1895 Gregorian (the 16th day of the 11th lunar month, China still used a lunisolar calendar then) was followed by January 1, 1896 (the 17th day of the 11th lunar month) as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  8. In the years prior to 1946, the Dangi year reckoning (2333 B.C.) was informally used with the Korean lunar calendar, but not with their year-reckoning altered Gregorian calendar which used another year numbering plan.

North and South Korea 1945 and After

  1. The ending of the Empire of Japan's 35 year rule of Korea by the Allied forces resulted in the dividing of Korea, with the Soviets occupying North Korea and the United States occupying South Korea.
  2. The Gregorian-Dangi calendar: From 1945 until 1961 in South Korea, the Gregorian calendar years were counted using the reckoning year of 2333 B.C. (regarded as year Dangi 1) of the year of the founding of Gojoseon, which was the date of the legendary founding of Korea by Dangun, leading the Gregorian calendar there to be using the Dangi years 4278 to 4294.
  3. This year numbering was informally used with the Korean lunar calendar before 1945 and occasionally used since 1961 and mostly in North Korea prior to the year 1997.
  4. The Gregoiran-Juche calendar: In North Korea, this calendar has been used since 1997 and numbered its years based on the birth of North Korea Kim II-sung, beginning with year 1 (actually Juche 1) in the reckoning Gregorian year of 1912, which maps to the Dangun year of 4245.
  5. It was adopted on July 8, 1997 on the third anniversary of the death of Kim II-sung and was implemented the following September 9.
  6. For the Gregorian-Juche calendar, there are no "before Juche 1" years, and years 1911 and earlier are reckoned from the Gregorian calendar only. For the years after 1912, the years are given either in Juche years only, or in Juche years with the corresponding Gregorian calendar year, but not just the Gregorian calendar year alone.

Latvia

  1. in 1915, it began using the Gregorian calendar during German occupation to the year 1918.

Lithuania

  1. in 1915, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Lorraine

  1. in 1579, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. 16 Feb 1760 was followed by 28 Feb 1760 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Luxembourg

  1. 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Netherlands (including Belgium)

  1. in 1576 in the Southern Netherlands, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. in Flanders, Zeeland, Brabrant, Artois, Hennegau and the "Staten Generaal": 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  3. in Holland:
    1. Different authorities say:
    2. 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
    3. 1 Jan 1583 was followed by 12 Jan 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  4. In the Catholic states of the Netherlands, the day following December 21, 1582 Julian was January 1, 1583 Gregorian.
  5. Limburg and the southern provinces:
    1. Different Authorites say:
      1. 20 Dec 1582 was followed by 31 Dec 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
      2. 21 Dec 1582 was followed by 1 Jan 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  6. Groningen:
    1. 10 Feb 1583 was followed by 21 Feb 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar, but it went back to Julian in the summer of 1594
    2. 31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701 as it switched back to the Gregorian calendar.
  7. Gelderland:
    1. 30 Jun 1700 was followed by 12 Jul 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  8. Utrecht and Overijssel:
    1. 30 Nov 1700 was followed by 12 Dec 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  9. Friesland:
    1. Different Authorites say:
      1. 30 Nov 1700 was followed by 12 Dec 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
      2. 31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  10. Zeuthen, Groningen, etc.
    1. began using the Gregorian calendar.
    2. 30 Nov 1700 was followed by 12 Dec 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  11. Drenthe:
    1. 30 Apr 1701 was followed by 12 May 1701 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  12. The Dutch Republic:
    1. In 1583, the Dutch Republic began using January 1 as the start of the year.
    2. Dutch Republic (Holland, Zeeland) in 1582 adopted the Gregorian calendar
    3. Dutch Republic except Holland and Zeeland in 1700 adopted the Gregorian calendar

Normandy

  1. Normandy used the Julian-12-25+ Calendar through Julian-1 year 1066.
  2. King William the I of Normandy changed the calendar to be used the day he was crowned on Dec 25, 1067 Julian-12-25+ so that this day became Dec 25, 1066 Julian-1 date. To avoid confusion, the duplicate date range of Dec 25 to Dec 31, 1066 was suffixed as 1066 Julian-12-25+ for the first occurence (corresponding to Julian-1 year 1065) and 1066 Julian-1 as the country swiched to that calendar.

Norway (was once part of Denmark)

  1. In 1559, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. in 1700, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  3. 18 Feb 1700 was followed by 1 Mar 1700 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Poland

  1. In 1556, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Portugal

  1. In 1556, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Prussia (part of Germany during the time)

  1. In 1559, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. In 1610, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  3. 22 Aug 1610 was followed by 2 Sep 1610 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Romania

  1. in 1919, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. 31 Mar 1919 was followed by 14 Apr 1919 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar. (The Greek Orthodox parts of the country may have changed later)

Russia

  1. When the Julian calendar was adopted in 988 A.D. Julian by Vladimir I of Kiev, the year was numbered Anno Mundi 6496, beginning on March 1, six months after the start of the Byzantine Anno Mundi year with the same number. The calendar format was called Julian-Byzantine3-1-minus with the New Year Day on March 1.
  2. March 1 was the first day of the numbered year from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar).
  3. In 1492 (AM 7000), Ivan III, according to church tradition, realigned the start of the year to September 1, so that AM 7000 only lasted for six months in Russia, from March 1 to August 31, 1492 Julian. This lined up the numbered years between the Byzantine calendar and the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendar with the year modified from the format of the Julian calendar.
  4. The day after August 31, 7000 was September 1, 7001 (occurring on the same dates on the Julian calendar in 1492). The calendar format was called Julian-Byzantine-9-1 with the New Year Day on September 1.
  5. September 1 was used as the New Year Day in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000 in the Byzantine calendar) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I. The September 1 New Year Day is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year.
  6. In 1700, January 1 became the start of the year. The Byzantine years were replaced with the Julian years as it adpopted the Julian-1 calendar with January 1 being the New Years Day.
  7. In 1867, Russia sold the territory of Alaska to the United States. See under Alaska for more.
  8. Soviet Russia undertook its calendar reform in February 1918, they moved from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian. This move resulted in a loss of 13 days, so that January 31, 1918 was followed by February 14, 1918 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  9. Calendar used: January 1918 Julian/Gregorian: Mon 1 - Wed 31. February 1918 Gregorian: Thu 14 - Thu 28
  10. In the eastern parts of the country, the change may not have occured until 1920.

Scotland

  1. Scotland changed the start of the Scottish New Year to January 1 in 1600 (this means that 1599 was a short year).
  2. Scotland went from Julian-3-25- in 1599 where New Year's Day was March 25 to Julian-1 in 1600 where New Year's Day is January 1
  3. The New Years Day for 1599 and before was March 25. The Act of the Parliament was passed on Dec 17, 1599.
  4. The change to the Gregorian Calendar in Scotland did not happen until 1752 when the whole of Britian (including Ireland), England and its countries changed with the day after Sep 2, 1752 (Julian-1) becoming Sep 14, 1752 (Gregorian)
  5. From Jan 1 - Sep 2, Scotland and Britian's New Years lined up when Britian moved New Year's Day to Jan 1 in 1752.
  6. During the years from 1600 until the end of 1751, Scotland's New Year as Jan 1 but England and its colonies had it on March 25, so between January 1 through March 24 of each of those years, Scotland was "one year ahead" of England, but lined up from March 25 through December 31.
  7. Calendar used: September 1752 Julian/Gregorian: Tue 1-Wed 2, then Thu 14-Sat 30

Serbia

  1. in 1804, January 1 was the new year day.
  2. in 1918, it began using the Gregorian calenda

Spain

  1. Spain used the Julian-12-25+ Calendar from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century.
  2. In 1556, January 1 became the start of the year.
  3. In 1582 (or for up to 1584 for places other than Spain), Spain and its territories, Texas, Florida, California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, all switched with owner Spain to the Gregorian calendar.
  4. 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Strasbourg

  1. On February 1682, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Sweden

  1. Moved New Year's Day to January 1 in 1529 or 1559 (began using Julian-1)
  2. Its plan to phase in the Gregorian calendar was to omit all of the leap year days from 1700 to 1740 until its calendar caught up with the Gregorian calendar.
  3. Sweden skipped the Julian-1 Leap Year Day of 1700. Sweden was a day ahead of the Julian-1 calendar.
  4. Because of the war, leap days were not omitted in the years 1704 and 1708
  5. From March 1, 1700 (Swedish Date, which was Julian-1 Feb 29, 1700) until Feb 29, 1712 (Swedish Date, which was Julian-1 Feb 28, 1712), its calendar was off one day. To make up for the lag, the missing Feb 29, 1700 date was repurposed to be Feb 30, 1712 (Swedish Date, Feb 29, 1712 Julian-1 or March 11, 1712 Gregorian), followed by March 1, 1712 (Julian-1) or March 12, 1712 (Gregorian) as the Swedish calendar came to an end the day before.
  6. Calendar used: February 1712 Swedish-Julian-1: Mon 1 - Wed 30. Then March 1712 Julian-1: Thu 1 - Sat 31
  7. In 1753, Sweden went from the Julian-1 to the Gregorian calendar by omitting the last 11 days in February (Feb 18-28), so that when Feb 18, 1753 Julian-1 arrived, it was March 1, 1753 Gregorian. Feb 17, 1753 was the last day Sweden used the Julian-1 calendar.
  8. 17 Feb 1753 was followed by 1 Mar 1753 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  9. Calendar used: February 1753 Julian-1: (weekdays may not be accurate) Sun 1 - Tue 17. Then March 1753 Gregorian: Wed 1 - Fri 31

Switzerland

  1. in 1583, 1584 or 1597, Catholic Switzerland's Cantons began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. in 1700, in the Swiss Cantons and Protstant Switzerland (Zurich, Bern, Basel, Schafhausen, Neuchatel, Geneva): 31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.
  3. In 1724, St. Gallen switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Thailand

  1. In 1941, January 1 became the start of the year.

Transylvania

  1. in 1590, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. 14 Dec 1590 was followed by 25 Dec 1590 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Turkey

  1. Two calendar phase:
    1. The Julian-3-1- calendar was used from 1677 A.D. onwards for fiscal matters only.
    2. the Ottoman calendar was first put into use in 1676 A.D., and spread slowly until they early 1839 when it became the standard calendar of the Ottoman empire.
    3. The start of the fiscal year was set at March 1 in 1740 A.D. (or 1152 A.H.)
    4. For civic matters, the religious Islamic calendar was used in the Islamic state of the Ottoman Empire.
    5. Due to the fact that the Islamic cycles 33 times in a 32-year Julian calendar cycle, the first year of the Islamic calendar drifted earlier and earlier (by around 11 days a year) until the Islamic year accrued by an extra year. The Islamic calendar was lunar while the Julian calendar was solar.
  2. Creation of the Rumi calendar
    1. The modified Julian-3-1- calendar was adopted on March 13, 1840 Gregorian date (or March 1, 1256 A.H., or otherwise March 1, 1840 Julian-3 date) as the official calendar for all civic matters, and was given a name: "Rumi"
    2. The Rumi calendar was a blend of using the dates that line up with the Julian-3-1- calendar with the new year day on March 3 and using the years based on the reckoning year of 622 A.D., when Mohammed and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina, which is the same event used for the year for the Islamic calendar.
    3. With the change of the civic calendar to Rumi, the difference between the years 1256 A.H. and 1840 Julian was 584 years.
    4. The Rumi calendar was also called the Ottoman fiscal calendar.
    5. It as well as future modificatrions of it was the official calendar of the Ottoman Empire until 1926.
  3. Rumi Calendar Modification 1 (aka Gregorian-Rumi-1)
    1. In February of 1917, the Rumi calendar had its dates realigned from the Julian-3-1- calendar to the Gregorian-Rumi calendar.
    2. The Gregorian-Rumi calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian-3 calendar, but the year difference of 584 years remain between the two.
    3. The day after February 15, 1332 A.H. (or February 15, 1916 Julian-3-1- or February 15, 1917 Julian-1 or February 28, 1917 Gregorian) was March 1, 1333 A.H. (or March 1, 1917 Gregorian or February 16, 1917 Julian-1 or February 16, 1916 Julian-3-1-).
    4. The new year day was still March 1 on this modified calendar.
    5. The year 1333 A.H. (1917 A.D.) was made into a year with only ten months, running from March 1 to December 31.
  4. Rumi Calendar Modification 2 (aka Gregorian-Rumi-2) and its demise
    1. The new year day was moved to January 1 effective on January 1, 1918 Gregorian, or on the Rumi calendar, January 1, 1334 A.H.
    2. after the Ottoman Empire dissolved in 1922, the Rumi calendar remained in use in the first few years of the successor nation of The Republic of Turkey.
    3. In 1925, the use of the A.H. era was abandoned by an act of December 26, 1341 A.H. (or 1925 Gregorian) effective on the first day of the following January.
    4. On January 1, 1926, Turkey was using the whole of the Gregorian calendar.
  5. Conversion between the Rumi and Gregorian calendars:
    1. Start-of-year correction:
      1. Until the end of 1332 A.H., Rumi dates in the last 12 (before and including 1899) or 13 days (on and after 1900) of December, all of January, and February belong to the following Gregorian year.
      2. Until the end of February 1917 A.D., Gregorian dates in January, February, and the first 12 (up to and including 1899) or 13 days (from 1900 and later) of March belong to the previous Rumi year.
    2. Before March 13, 1840 A.D.: No conversion is possible, since the Rumi calendar was not in use.
    3. Adding Days and Years
      1. Between March 13, 1840 A.D. (March 1, 1256 A.H.) and March 13, 1900 A.D. (February 29, 1315 A.H.):
        1. Add 12 days and 584 years to the A.H. date to get the Gregorian date.
        2. The year 1900 was not a Gregorian leap year.
        3. The day after February 28, 1900 A.D. (Feb. 16, 1315 A.H.) was March 1, 1900 A.D. (Feb. 17, 1315 A.H.)
      2. Between March 14, 1900 A.D. (March 1, 1316 A.H.) and February 28, 1917 A.D. (February 15, 1332 A.H.):
        1. Add 13 days and 584 years to the A.H. date to get the Gregorian date
      3. after March 1, 1917 (March 1, 1333 A.H.), just add 584 years to the A.H. year.

Tuscany

  1. in 1721, January 1 became the start of the year.
  2. in 1750, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Tyrol

  1. 5 Oct 1583 was followed by 16 Oct 1583 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar.

Ukraine

  1. 15 Feb 1918 was followed by 1 Mar 1918 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar. Soviet Russia adopted the Gregorian calendar a month before that.

The United States of America (including its days as English and other country's colonies)

  1. The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 enacted the actions that follow this entry
  2. December 31, 1750 (Julian-3-25-) was followed by January 1, 1750 (Julian still had New Year's Day on March 25)
  3. March 24, 1750 was followed by March 25, 1751 (the last time this date was used for that country as their New Year's Day)
  4. December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 (Julian-1 with January 1 as the start of the new year)
  5. 1751 was a short year with 282 days.
  6. September 2, 1752 (Julian-1) was followed by September 14, 1752 (Gregorian dropping of 11 days)
  7. The Gregorian calendar was introduced on throughout Ireland, England, Britain and the British colonies with September 3, 1752 (the day after Sep 2, 1752 Julian-1) changed to September 14, 1752 (Gregorian)
  8. Calendar used: September 1752 Julian/Gregorian: Tue 1-Wed 2, then Thu 14-Sat 30
  9. On Sep 14, 1752, the territories of Washington, Oregon, and the eastern seaboard (with owner Great Britain) switched to the Gregorian calendar (the day after Sep 2, 1752 Julian date)

U.S.S.R.

  1. in 1918, it began using the Gregorian calendar.

Republic of Venice

  1. In 1522, January 1 was the start of the year but switched to March 1 later.
  2. In 1582, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  3. March 1 was the first day of the numbered year from whatever until its destruction in 1797.

Wales

  1. see Great Britain

Yugoslavia

  1. in 1919, it began using the Gregorian calendar.
  2. 14 January 1919 was followed by 28 January 1919 as it switched to the Gregorian calendar, but parts of the country had changed over earlier.
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