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You are at the section Calendar History

The French Republican Calendar (Number Change Day usually on September 22)

  1. In 1793, France abandoned the Gregorian calendar in favour of the French Republican Calendar.
  2. The system is imposed by the French on all the sister republics set up in Europe from 1795.
  3. France used the French Republican Calendar from September 22, 1792 to December 31, 1805 Gregorian Calendar.
  4. Southward equinox day (usually 22 September) was "New Year's Day" in the French Republican Calendar, which was in use from 1793 to 1805. This was primidi Vendemiaire, the first day of the first month.
  5. New Years Day was usually on Sep 22.
  6. The first day of the calendar, September 22, 1 (the year) on the FRC, corresponded to the September 22, 1793 Gregorian date.
  7. On October 5, 1793, the revolutionary convention decreed that the year (starting on September 22, 1792 - the autumnal equinox, and the day after the proclamation of the new republic) would be divided into 12 months of 30 days, named after corresponding seasonal phenomena (e.g. seed, blossom, harvest). The remaining five days of the year, called sans-culottides, were feast days.
  8. In leap years, the extra day, Revolution Day, was to be added to the end of the year.
  9. The Revolutionary calendar had no week; each month was divided into three decades, with every tenth day to be a day of rest. This calendar was confusing to predict year to year at best.
  10. This calendar was abandoned after the year 1805.
  11. On January 1, 1806, France reverted to the Gregorian calendar.

Alexandrian Calendar

  1. The Alexandrian calendar in Egypt started on August 29 (or August 30 after an Alexandrian leap year). The Alexandrian Calendar Number Change Day: Aug 29 or 30.
  2. Several local provincial calendars were aligned to start on the birthday of Augustus, September 23.
  3. The indiction caused the Byzantine year, which used the Julian calendar, to begin on September 1.
  4. The September 1 New Year Day is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year.
  5. Date of Creation: March 25, 5493 B.C. using the Julian-1 calendar

Russian Modifications of Julian Calendars

  1. Julian-Byzantine3-1-minus Calendar (When New Years Day was March 1 and the year changed to that of the Byzantine calendar six months late)
    1. When the Julian calendar was adopted in 988 A.D. Julian by Vladimir I of Kiev, the year was numbered Anno Mundi 6496, beginning on March 1, six months after the start of the Byzantine Anno Mundi year with the same number.
    2. The calendar format was called Julian-Byzantine3-1-minus with the New Year Day on March 1.
    3. March 1 was the first day of the numbered year from 988 until 1492 (Anno Mundi 7000 in the Byzantine calendar).
  2. Julian-Byzantine-9-1 (when New Years Day was September 1)
    1. In 1492 (AM 7000), Ivan III, according to church tradition, realigned the start of the year to September 1, so that AM 7000 only lasted for six months in Russia, from March 1 to August 31, 1492 Julian. This lined up the numbered years between the Byzantine calendar and the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendar with the year of reckoning at 5509 B.C.E.
    2. The day after August 31, 7000 was September 1, 7001 (occurring on the same dates on the Julian calendar in 1492). The calendar format was called Julian-Byzantine-9-1 with the New Year Day on September 1.
    3. September 1 was used as the New Year Day in Russia from 1492 (A.M. 7000 in the Byzantine calendar) until the adoption of the Christian era in 1700 via a December 1699 decree of Tsar Peter I.
    4. The September 1 New Year Day is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year.
  3. Julian-1 (when New Years Day was January 1)
    1. In 1700, January 1 became the start of the year. The Byzantine years were replaced with the Julian years as it adpopted the Julian-1 calendar with January 1 being the New Years Day.

Byzantine and the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendars

  1. the Byzantine calendar was used by the Eastern Orthodox Church fron c. 691 to 1728.
  2. the Byzantine calendar was used in the Byzantine Empire from 988-1453
  3. the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendar was a special modified Julian-9-1+ calendar used in Russia from c. 988-1700.
  4. the Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendar used the year of reckoning at 5509 B.C., and is not to be confused with the Julian-9-1+ calendar, which uses the year of reckoing at 1 A.D.
  5. Both calendars were based on the dates of the Julian-1 calendar, but the number change day was on Sep 1. Byzantine Number Change Day: Sep 1.
  6. the Date of Creation for both calendars were set at 5509 years before Incarnation.
  7. Year 1 was:
    1. Sep 1, 5509 B.C. to Aug 31, 5508 B.C. using the Julian-1 calendar (the day after Aug 31 is Sep 1, 5508 B.C.)
    2. Sep 1, 1 to Aug 31, 1 using the Byzantine calendar (the day after Aug 31 is Sep 1, year 2)
    3. Sep 1, 5509 B.C. to Aug 31, 5509 B.C. using the Julian-9-1+ calendar (the day after Aug 31 is Sep 1, 5508 B.C.)
  8. the World Era began on Sep 1, 5509 B.C.
  9. Julian-9-1+ Calendar syncs with Byzantine Calendar so that the years change on Sep 1 but using different years or reckoning. Therefore, the modified calendar was called Julian-Byzantine-9-1
  10. Byzantine calendar Leap Days were inserted between Feb 23 and Feb 24 or doubled the length of the Feb 24 day to 48 hours? Julian-Byzantine-9-1 calendar Leap Year days were inserted between Feb 28 and March 1 (Feb 29 used for that day).
  11. Date translation: New Year Day (or Number Change Day) on September 1 (Julian-1), equals Sep 14 Gregorian 1900-2099, Sep 15 Gregorian 2100-2199, etc.

Coptic Orthodox Calendar

  1. Broke off from Eastern Orthodox calendar in 452
  2. New Year synched with Julian Sep 1 at a different point on the Gregorian calendar.
  3. Coptic New Year Day falls on Sep 11 Gregorian 1900-2099 except for years before the Gregorian leap years in which they ran on Sep 12.
  4. Coptic Year in 1731 began in Sep 2013

Ethopian Calendar:

  1. New Year Day falls on Coptic New Year Day Sep 1, but year 2006 there began on Sep 11, 2013.
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Calendar History Main Page Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I Calendar 2: The Republican Calendar I Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar Calendar 5: The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar Calendar 6: The Julian-Roman-Transitional-1 Calendar Calendar 7: The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar Calendar 8: The Julian-Kalends-1 Calendar Calendar 9: The Julian-1 Calendar Calendar 10: The Gregorian Calendar Dual Dating Date Confusion Definition of Days on the Calendars Definition of Calendars: Others Old, New and Unknown Styles Leap Year Error on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar What Calendars Each Country Was Using Gregorian-Julian Differences By Century New Years Days Addenda Day and Year Measurements Calendar Varieties-Gregorian Calendar Varieties-Julian Calendar Varieties-Other Years Converted From Julian Period Day Lining Up Julian Dates Between Earth and Mars The Martian Calendar of Earth Converting From the Julian Period Date Creating a Julian Period Day Database File Truncating Answers Conversion Between Julian-1 and Gregorian Calendars Create a Calendar Leap Year Day Comparisons Swedish Calendar 1700-1712
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