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You are at the section Calendar History

Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II

The Republican Calendar II (in use beginning from 452? B.C.E. until 47 B.C.E., or 292? UAC until 707 UAC)

In around 452? B.C.E., the months of Ianuarius and Februarius were switched around, in fact, the calendar still began with Ianuarius but ended with December.

The intercalary month of Mercedonius still followed Februarius.

In real time, the months of Ianuarius stayed the same, but Februarius returned two or three months after the Februarius of the previous year when it was part of the ending months of the calendar, and the months of Martius through December shifted back one month.

Due to the infrequency of inserting intercalation months, the calendar was too fast, resulting in a total eclipse of the sun in Rome really taking place on March 14 in 190 B.C. when the calendar said July 11. An eclipse of Northern Greece on June 21, 168 B.C. was recorded as having occurred on Sep 3.

This unpredictability and infrequency of adding intercalation months resulted in the calendar to be slow by three months by 47 B.C.E. (or 707 UAC).

  1. This calendar cannot be proleptic, meaning, that it would not made sense if it was extended in either direction into the years it wasn't in existence earlier or employed in later years.
  2. the months on the Republican Calendar II: The months of Ianuarius and Februarius were switched around, in fact, the calendar still began with Ianuarius but ended with December.
  3. The Month of February:
    1. February consisted of two parts, each with an odd number of days. The first part ended with the Terminalia on the 23rd, which was considered the end of the religious year, and the five remaining days, beginning with the Regifugium on the 24th, formed the second part.
    2. Terminalia was Feb 23, which was the end of the first part of February. Macrobius states that the year began after that day.
    3. The suppressed five days of Februarius are repurposed to be the last five days of Mercedonius, or VI Kal. Mar., V Kal. Mar., IV Kal. Mar., III Kal. Mar. and pridie Mar., effectively leaving the last five Roman names of the days unchanged for this revision of the calendar.
    4. For 355 day years, Februarius had 28 days.
    5. For 377 day years:
      1. Februarius had 23 days and Mercedonius had 27 (22 inserted + five from Februarius)
      2. February XI (modern day Feb 14) to pridie Kal (modern day Feb 23), then, insert 22 days for the first days Intercalaris, then VI Kal to pridie Kal taken from February ended that month.
    6. For 378 day years:
      1. Some say that Februarius had 23 days and Mercedonius had 28 (23 inserted + five from Februarius). They argue that Mercedonius was of variable length of 27 or 28 days and Februarius was fixed at 23 during years with this intercalary month.
      2. Some say that Mercedonius had 27 with an inserted intercalary day after Feb 23 and Mercedonius 1
      3. Some say that Februarius varied from 23 days (for 377 day years) to 24 (for 378 day years) days and Mercedonius was fixed at 27 (23 inserted + four from Februarius)
      4. No date is offered for the Regifugium in 378-day years.
      5. Another source said that Mercedonius was inserted between Feb 23 and 24 and varied with a length of 22 days (for 377 day years) for 23 days (for 378 day years), with Feb 24-28 following the last day of Mercedonius.
    7. Possible Schemes for 378 day years:
      1. February XI (modern day Feb 14) to pridie Kal (modern day Feb 23), then, insert 23 days for the first days Intercalaris, then VI Kal to pridie Kal taken from February ended that month.
      2. February XII (modern day Feb 14) to III Kal (modern day Feb 23), then insert pridie Kal (modern day Feb 24), then, insert 22 days for the first days Intercalaris, then VI Kal to pridie Kal taken from February ended that month.
      3. February XII (modern day Feb 14) to pridie Kal (Modern day Feb 24), then, insert 23 days for the first days Intercalaris, then V Kal to pridie Kal taken from February ended that month.
  4. The Calendar Lineup:
    1. Ianuarius 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    2. Februarius 28 in common years or 23 in intercalary years with its last five days following the 22 or 23 day intercalary month (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    3. Mercedonius (Intercalaris) 0 in common years or 22 or 23 in intercalary years, followed by the five days taken from Februarius to make it a 27 or 28 day month. (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    4. Martius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
    5. Aprilis 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    6. Maius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
    7. Iunius 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    8. Quintills 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
    9. Sextilis 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    10. September 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    11. October 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
    12. November 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    13. December 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
  5. Suggested Eight Year Pattern of the Republican Calendar II (and possibly I as well)
    1. This eight year group would make the average year as 366 and a quarter of a day long, a full 24 hours too long!
      1. Year 1: 12 months or 355 days
      2. Year 2: 13 months or 377 days
      3. Year 3: 12 months or 355 days
      4. Year 4: 13 months or 378 days
      5. Year 5: 12 months or 355 days
      6. Year 6: 13 months or 377 days
      7. Year 7: 12 months or 355 days
      8. Year 8: 13 months or 378 days
  6. The Next to the Year of Confusion (47 B.C.)
    1. Here is an educated guess on the lengths of the months of that year which had 355 days:
      1. January: 29
      2. February: 28 (23 in 46 B.C.)
      3. Intercalaris: 0 (28 in 46 B.C.)
      4. March: 31
      5. April: 29
      6. May: 31
      7. June: 29
      8. Quintilis: 31
      9. Sextilis: 29
      10. September: 29
      11. October: 31
      12. November: 29
      13. Undecember: 0 (33 in 46 B.C.)
      14. Duodecember: 0 (34 in 46 B.C.)
      15. December: 29

Roman Day to Numeric Day of Month Equivalent Chart (452?-47 B.C.E.)

Months and Days added:
none

Months and Days dropped:
none

Numeric Day of MonthMart. Mai. Quin. Oct. (31 days)no months (30 days)Apr. Iun. Sext. Sept. Nov. Dec. Ian. (29 days)Feb (28 or 23 days) Mer. (28 days)Mer. (27 days)
1Kal. Kal. Kal. Kal. Kal.
2VI Non. IV Non. IV Non. IV Non. IV Non.
3V Non. III Non. III Non. III Non. III Non.
4IV Non. Prid. Non.Prid. Non.Prid. Non.Prid. Non.
5III Non. Non. Non. Non. Non.
6Prid. Non. VIII Id. VIII Id. VIII Id. VIII Id.
7Non. VII Id. VII Id. VII Id. VII Id.
8VIII Id. VI Id. VI Id. VI Id. VI Id.
9VII Id. V Id. V Id. V Id. V Id.
10VI Id. IV Id. IV Id. IV Id. IV Id.
11V Id. III Id. III Id. III Id. III Id.
12IV Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id.
13III Id. Id. Id. Id. Id.
14Prid. Id. XVIII Kal.XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XV Kal.
15Id. XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIV Kal.
16XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIII. Kal.
17XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIII. Kal.XII Kal.
18XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIII. Kal.XII Kal. XI Kal.
19XIV Kal. XIII Kal. XII Kal. XI Kal. X Kal.
20XIII Kal. XII Kal. XI Kal. X Kal. IX Kal.
21XII Kal. XI Kal. X Kal. IX Kal. VIII Kal.
22XI Kal. X Kal. IX Kal. VIII Kal. VII Kal.
23X Kal. IX Kal. VIII Kal. VII Kal. VI Kal.
24IX Kal. VIII Kal. VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal.
25VIII Kal. VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal.
26VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal.
27VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.
28V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.--
29IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.-- --
30III Kal. Prid. Kal.-- -- --
31Prid. Kal.-- -- -- --
  1. Id. = Idus = Ides
  2. Non. = Nonae = Nones
  3. Kal. = Kals = Kalendae
  4. Prid. = pridie
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Calendar History Main Page Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I Calendar 2: The Republican Calendar I Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar Calendar 5: The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar Calendar 6: The Julian-Roman-Transitional-1 Calendar Calendar 7: The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar Calendar 8: The Julian-Kalends-1 Calendar Calendar 9: The Julian-1 Calendar Calendar 10: The Gregorian Calendar Dual Dating Date Confusion Definition of Days on the Calendars Definition of Calendars: Others Old, New and Unknown Styles Leap Year Error on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar What Calendars Each Country Was Using Gregorian-Julian Differences By Century New Years Days Addenda Day and Year Measurements Calendar Varieties-Gregorian Calendar Varieties-Julian Calendar Varieties-Other Years Converted From Julian Period Day Lining Up Julian Dates Between Earth and Mars The Martian Calendar of Earth Converting From the Julian Period Date Creating a Julian Period Day Database File Truncating Answers Conversion Between Julian-1 and Gregorian Calendars Create a Calendar Leap Year Day Comparisons Swedish Calendar 1700-1712
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